PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is a public key cryptography software that can be used to encrypt and sign data communication. In this tutorial, we will look at how to verify the PGP signature of software downloaded from the Internet on Linux.
Linux users can securely install software from their distribution’s repositories. But there are times when you need to download and install software from a website. How can you be sure that the software you downloaded wasn’t tampered with?
Some software authors sign their software using a PGP program such as GPG (GNU Privacy Guard), which is a free software implementation of the OpenPGP standard. In that case, you can verify the integrity of software using GPG.
The process is relatively simple:
You download the public key (
file) of the software author.
- Check the public key’s fingerprint to ensure that it’s the correct key.
- Import the correct public key to your GPG public keyring.
Download the PGP signature file (
) of the software.
- Use public key to verify PGP signature. If the signature is correct, then the software wasn’t tampered with.
We will use VeraCrypt as an example to show you how to verify PGP signature of downloaded software.
Example: Verify PGP Signature of VeraCrypt
Although VeraCrypt is open source software, it isn’t included in Ubuntu repository. We can download VeraCrypt Linux installer from official website. I use Ubuntu 20.04 desktop, so I download the .deb file for Ubuntu 20.04.
On the VeraCrypt download page, you can also find the PGP public key and PGP signature download link. Click the links to download these two files. You can run the following command to download PGP public key of VeraCrypt.
Before you do anything with the public key, you must always check the key’s fingerprint to see if it’s the correct key. Display the fingerprint of the key using the command below.
gpg --show-keys VeraCrypt_PGP_public_key.asc
The second line of the output is the key’s fingerprint.
If you are using a very old version of GPG (gpg –version) like 1.4.20, then use the following command to display the fingerprint.
gpg --with-fingerprint VeraCrypt_PGP_public_key.asc
Compare it with the fingerprint published on VeraCrypt website.
As you can see, the two fingerprints are identical, which means the public key is correct. So you can import the public key to your GPG public keyring with:
gpg --import VeraCrypt_PGP_public_key.asc
Now verify the signature of the software installer file using the command below. You need to specify the signature file (.sig) and the software installer file. This is a detached signature, meaning that the signature and software are in separate files.
gpg --verify veracrypt-1.24-Update7-Ubuntu-20.04-amd64.deb.sig veracrypt-1.24-Update7-Ubuntu-20.04-amd64.deb
The output should say “Good Signature”.
The signature is a hash value, encrypted with the software author’s private key. GPG uses the public key to decrypt hash value, then calculate the hash value of VeraCrypt installer and compare the two. If these two hash values match, then the signature is good and the software wasn’t tampered with.
If GPG tells you it’s a bad signature, then the software installer was tampered with or corrupted.
Importing Public Key from a Trusted Source
Note that if the software author tells you his/her public key ID on the website, then you can import the public key with the following command, so you don’t have to manually download the PGP public key and import it to your keyring.
gpg --recv-keys <key-ID>
Then display the fingerprint with:
gpg --fingerprint <key-ID>
And compare the fingerprint from output with the one published on website. This is more secure because the public key is imported from a public key server, which by default is set to hkp://keys.gnupg.net in ~/.gnupg/gpg.conf file. There’re hundreds of public keyservers around the world. Ubuntu has their own key server. MIT also has one.
If you see the following error,
gpg: keyserver receive failed: No data
then you can try a different key server, like this:
gpg --keyserver hkps://keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv-keys 0x680D16DE
I hope this tutorial helped you verify PGP signature of software downloads. As always, if you found this post useful, then subscribe to our free newsletter or follow us on Twitter or like our Facebook page.